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Teleporter Contracts Upgradeability


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The TeleporterMessenger contract is non-upgradable, once a version of the contract is deployed it cannot be changed. This is with the intention of preventing any changes to the deployed contract that could potentially introduce bugs or vulnerabilities.

However, there could still be new versions of TeleporterMessenger contracts needed to be deployed in the future. TeleporterRegistry provides applications that use a TeleporterMessenger instance a minimal step process to integrate with new versions of TeleporterMessenger.

The TeleporterRegistry maintains a mapping of TeleporterMessenger contract versions to their addresses. When a new TeleporterMessenger version is deployed, its address can be added to the TeleporterRegistry. The TeleporterRegistry can only be updated through a Warp off-chain message that meets the following requirements:

  • sourceChainAddress must match VALIDATORS_SOURCE_ADDRESS = address(0)
    • The zero address can only be set as the source chain address by a Warp off-chain message, and cannot be set by an on-chain Warp message.
  • sourceBlockchainID must match the blockchain ID that the registry is deployed on
  • destinationBlockchainID must match the blockchain ID that the registry is deployed on
  • destinationAddress must match the address of the registry

In the TeleporterRegistry contract, the latestVersion state variable returns the highest version number that has been registered in the registry. The getLatestTeleporter function returns the ITeleporterMessenger that is registered with the corresponding version.


  • TeleporterRegistry is deployed on each blockchain that needs to keep track of TeleporterMessenger contract versions.
  • The registry's contract address on each blockchain does not need to be the same, and does not require a Nick's method transaction for deployment.
  • Each registry's mapping of version to contract address is independent of registries on other blockchains, and chains can decide on their own registry mapping entries.
  • Each blockchain should only have one canonical TeleporterRegistry contract.
  • TeleporterRegistry contract can be initialized through a list of initial registry entries, which are TeleporterMessenger contract versions and their addresses.
  • The registry keeps track of a mapping of TeleporterMessenger contract versions to their addresses, and vice versa, a mapping of TeleporterMessenger contract addresses to their versions.
  • Version zero is an invalid version, and is used to indicate that a TeleporterMessenger contract has not been registered yet.
  • Once a version number is registered in the registry, it cannot be changed, but a previous registered protocol address can be added to the registry with a new version. This is especially important in the case of a rollback to a previous Teleporter version, in which case the previous Teleporter contract address would need to be registered with a new version to the registry.

Integrating TeleporterRegistry with TeleporterUpgradeable​

Upgrade UML diagram

TeleporterUpgradeable is an abstract contract that helps integrate the TeleporterRegistry into a dApp built on top of Teleporter. By inheriting from TeleporterUpgradeable, dapps get:

  • Ability to send Teleporter messages through the latest version of the Teleporter contract registered in the Teleporter registry. (The dApp can also override this to use a specific version of the Teleporter contract.)
  • minTeleporterVersion management that allows the dApp to specify the minimum Teleporter version that can send messages to the dApp.
  • Access controlled utility to update the minTeleporterVersion
  • Access controlled utility to pause/unpause interaction with specific Teleporter addresses.

To integrate TeleporterUpgradeable with a dApp pass in the Teleporter registry address inside the constructor. An example dApp looks like:

// An example dApp that integrates with the Teleporter registry
// to send/receive Teleporter messages.
contract ExampleApp is
// Constructor passes in the Teleporter registry address
// to the TeleporterUpgradeable contract.
address teleporterRegistryAddress
) TeleporterUpgradeable(teleporterRegistryAddress) {
currentBlockchainID = IWarpMessenger(WARP_PRECOMPILE_ADDRESS)
// Handles receiving Teleporter messages,
// and also checks that the sender is a valid Teleporter contract.
function _receiveTeleporterMessage(
bytes32 sourceBlockchainID,
address originSenderAddress,
bytes memory message
) internal override {
// implementation

// Implements the access control checks for the dApp's interaction with Teleporter versions.
function _checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess() internal view virtual override {


TeleporterUpgradeable utility​


The TeleporterUpgradeable contract constructor saves the Teleporter registry in a state variable used by the inheriting contract, and initializes a minTeleporterVersion to the highest TeleporterMessenger version registered in TeleporterRegistry. minTeleporterVersion is used to allow dApp's to specify the Teleporter versions allowed to interact with it.

Updating minTeleporterVersion​

The TeleporterUpgradeable.updateMinTeleporterVersion function updates the minTeleporterVersion used to check which Teleporter versions can deliver messages to the dApp, and emits the MinTeleporterVersionUpdated event. The updateMinTeleporterVersion function should ONLY be called by the dApp when it completes delivery of messages from the old Teleporter contract, and now wants to update the minTeleporterVersion to only allow the new Teleporter version. By default, updateMinTeleporterVersion can only be called with a version greater than the current minTeleporterVersion and less than latestVersion in the Teleporter registry. So once this function is called, the dApp will no longer be able to receive messages from the old Teleporter contract version, unless the old version's Teleporter address was registered in the registry again with a new version.

Checking Teleporter upgrade access​

To prevent anyone from calling the dApp's updateMinTeleporterVersion, which would disallow messages from old Teleporter versions from being received, this function should be safeguarded with access controls. All contracts deriving from TeleporterUpgradeable will need to implement TeleporterUpgradeable._checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess. For example, TeleporterOwnerUpgrade is an abstract contract that inherits TeleporterUpgradeable, and implements _checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess to check whether the caller is the owner.

    function _checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess() internal view virtual override {

Another example would be a dApp that has different roles and priveleges. _checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess can be implemented to check whether the caller is a specific role.

    function _checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess() internal view virtual override {
hasRole(TELEPORTER_UPGRADE_ROLE, _msgSender()),
"TeleporterUpgradeable: caller does not have upgrade access"

Sending with specific Teleporter version​

For sending messages with the Teleporter registry, dapps should use TeleporterUpgradeable._getTeleporterMessenger. This function by default extends TeleporterRegistry.getLatestTeleporter, using the latest version, and adds an extra check on whether the latest Teleporter address is paused. If the dApp wants to send a message through a specific Teleporter version, it can override _getTeleporterMessenger() to use the specific Teleporter version with TeleporterRegistry.getTeleporterFromVersion.

The TeleporterUpgradeable._sendTeleporterMessage function makes sending Teleporter messages easier. The function uses _getTeleporterMessenger to get the sending Teleporter version, pays for Teleporter fees from the dApp's balance, and sends the cross chain message.

Using latest version:

        ITeleporterMessenger teleporterMessenger = _getTeleporterMessenger();

Using specific version:

        // Override _getTeleporterMessenger to use specific version.
function _getTeleporterMessenger() internal view override returns (ITeleporterMessenger) {
ITeleporterMessenger teleporter = teleporterRegistry
"TeleporterUpgradeable: Teleporter sending version paused"

return teleporter;

ITeleporterMessenger teleporterMessenger = _getTeleporterMessenger();

Receiving from specific Teleporter versions​

TeleporterUpgradeable also provides an initial implementation of ITeleporterReceiver.receiveTeleporterMessage that ensures _msgSender is a TeleporterMessenger contract with a version greater than or equal to minTeleporterVersion. This supports the case where a dApp wants to upgrade to a new version of the TeleporterMessenger contract, but still wants to be able to receive messages from the old Teleporter contract.The dApp can override _receiveTeleporterMessage to implement its own logic for receiving messages from Teleporter contracts.

Pausing Teleporter version interactions​

Dapps that inherit from TeleporterUpgradeable can pause Teleporter interactions by calling TeleporterUpgradeable.pauseTeleporterAddress. This function prevents the contract from interacting with the paused Teleporter address when sending or receiving Teleporter messages.

pauseTeleporterAddress can only be called by addresses with the dApp's upgrade access, checked through TeleporterUpgradeable._checkTeleporterUpgradeAccess.

Unpausing Teleporter version interactions​

As with pausing, dapps can unpause Teleporter interactions by calling TeleporterUpgradeable.unpauseTeleporterAddress. This unpause function allows receiving Teleporter message from the unpaused Teleporter address, and also enables the sending of messages through the unpaused Teleporter address in _getTeleporterMessenger(). Unpausing is also only allowed by addresses with the dApp's upgrade access.

Note that receiving Teleporter messages is still governed by the minTeleporterVersion check, so even if a Teleporter address is unpaused, the dApp will not receive messages from the unpaused Teleporter address if the Teleporter version is less than minTeleporterVersion.

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